Basic concepts


Basic concepts - knowledge BaseI. Carbon footprint calculation: Scientific environmental protection activity. The calculation is based on the given data which we inspect, and calculate how much carbon-dioxide, or other greenhouse gases of equal measure is released to the atmosphere during the production, transportation of a product, or when a service is carried out. In case of a natural person or population, the calculation may be extended to determining the emission based on the lifestyle they lead.

II. Reduction program: Consulting for a producer, transporter, service provider, enterprise or a natural person about how they can reduce their carbon-dioxide emission in a natural way, with the help of technological developments and other decisions.

III. Emission unit: Defined, accepted and paraphrased in international agreements. This financial instrument is used to offset one ton of emitted harmful material. The aim of its purchase and utilization is to mediate money from the polluting technologies towards the renewable and clean energies.

IV. Offsetting: The offsetting of the calculated harmful material emission of a natural person, economic unit, product, service or transport through the retirement of Carbon Credits. The aim of the offsetting is that with the financial support of the offsetting individual (legal or natural) a chosen green investment’s financial development is realized. A Carbon Credit is a certificate, which authentically certifies that – during the activity of a green project – a given amount of carbon dioxide, or any other greenhouse gases of equal measure was not released to the atmosphere during the production of a product or when a service was carried out. If the product or the service had been completed with the help of traditional technologies the carbon dioxide – or the other greenhouse gases – would have gotten released into the atmosphere.

V. Retired status of Carbon Credits: The end of such project, where the carbon credits are retired in the registry on behalf of the eventual end user. This process can only be done once for each Carbon Credit. Retired Carbon Credits can no longer be used after they are offset.

VI. Certification: Credible demonstration of the offsetting by issuing a certificate, which contains the following data:

  1. Issuer’s name
  2. Issuer’s registration number
  3. Serial number
  4. Name of the project (geographical location, short description and a photo of the project might be added) from where the Carbon Credits originate.
  5. Name of the qualification standard.
  6. Name of a natural or legal person on behalf the retirement is done. Determination of the offset amount in physical units.
  7. Date
  8. Signature
  9. iCC’s logo
  10. iCC’s stamp

VII. Marketing, Green marketing: Providing marketing service in the interest of the individual or economic operator who performs the offsetting. During such service, the company communicates about carbon-dioxide emission reduction activity and offsetting activity, with the aim of maintaining livability of the earth.

VIII. Education and Training: Educational activity in the above mentioned topic, in order for people – who belong to the interest of the offsetting individuals and companies, such as clients, employees, subcontractors and business-owners – to obtain information that aims to promote understanding of the activity. In this way, it becomes easier to get acquainted with the scientific background of the activity, and the service of sustainable development as a manifestation of social responsibility. Furthermore, it involves the communication of the above-mentioned activity towards the external environment with the aim of leading by example in order to enable others to voluntarily participate in the program.

VIX. VER (Voluntary Emission Reduction): VERs originate from the most diverse sources, from small, community green projects to huge renewable energy producing systems. The “Green Projects” that generate VERs are certified by international supervisory bodies. In this way, both the individuals and the companies can neutralize – in a simple and cost effective way – their remaining emission that are left after their reduction. Even though the certification of the VERs are somewhat easier than the compulsory credits, all VERs must meet very strict standards, and the certification bodies must certify that the emission-reduction is real, measurable, definitive, and complements the previous reductions.

X. VCS standard (Voluntary Carbon Standard): Accepted by the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA), and was developed by non-profit bodies, such as The Climate Group and WWF. The Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) lays down the criteria for accepting Credits. In order for the Voluntary Emission Reduction to be accepted it must measure up to the VCS standard criteria.

XI. Sustainable development: A development process (of lands, cities, companies, societies, etc.), which “provides for the needs of the current generation without reducing the future generations’ ability to provide for their own needs”.

XII. Environmental protection: A social activity, which aims to prevent the damage that is caused by mankind, or to repair the damage that has already been done.

XIII. Carbon Footprint: Is a unit of measurement for the negative effect of human actions on the environment. With its help it can be measured to what degree do humans contribute to global warming. Definitions: 1. / The Carbon Footprint is the total amount of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions that are generated during the lifetime of a product or a service. 2. / The Carbon Footprint is the measurement of carbon dioxide – in kilograms or tons – that stimulates global warming to the same amount as all the other generated greenhouse gases do.

 

XIV. Greenhouse gases

Gases Formula GWPa Atmospheric lifetime (years) Atmospheric concentration Change (%)
Carbon-dioxide CO2 1 50-200 280 ↑ 368 ppmv +31
Methane CH4 23 8,4-12 700 ↑ 1750 ppbv +151
Dinitrogen oxide N2O 314 120 270 ↑ 316 ppbv +17

Fluorocarbons (HFC-k) 260 years
Perfluor carbons (PFC-k) 50 000 years
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-k) 102 years
Halons 65 years
Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC-k) 19 years

XV. Carbon Credit: A generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one ton of carbon-dioxide, or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon-dioxide equivalent (tCO2e), equivalent to one ton of carbon dioxide.

XVI. Climate Stability: In order to have climate stability, the same amount of energy has to leave the earth’s atmosphere as it is taken in (mostly from solar radiation, in smaller extent from the Earth’s internal heat).

XVII. Stopping Climate change: The only way to stop climate change is to radically reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases mainly arise from the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. This is why reducing the consumption of such fossil fuels, or replacing them with renewable energy sources are the main tool for mitigation. Other main greenhouse gas sources are, agriculture, which emits significant amounts of methane, or deforestation during which carbon dioxide – that is bounded by terrestrial vegetation – is released to the atmosphere.

XVIII. By Global Climate tipping point: we mean the last deadline after which Global Warming cannot be stopped. Climatologists determine different deadlines for this event, but after the tipping point, it will be impossible to reverse the melting of the glaciers, meaning that the icecaps will melt sooner or later. Mankind will no longer able to control the sea-level rise. So, such physical changes will take place in the world that we will not be able to avoid the ecological catastrophes, not even with the offsetting of carbon-dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Glaciers are the sources of many rivers in Asia. After the Global Climate tipping point, these areas will face drinking-water shortage. What is more, after the deadline, as a biological effect of the global warming, animal species will face mass extinction. Significant conflicts and clashes are predicted in case of drinking-water depletion.

By 2015, significant water reserves will be depleted in different parts of the world. Among many scientists, James Hansen, the leader of one of NASA’s space research institute, mark this event as the tipping point.

Other researchers predict that the climate catastrophe will happen in 2020. (Source: Wikipedia)